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June 22, 2020

Why You Cannot Square Your Hips in Warrior I or Warrior II

From my earliest days of practicing yoga, I heard teachers instructing “Square your hips” in Warrior I (virabhadrasana I) and Warrior II poses (virabhadrasana II).

[Scroll to the video at the bottom of this page to see the essence of this blog post in video format].

I repeated this phrase in my own yoga teaching for most of a decade (2001-2008-ish) before looking up close at the structure of the hips and pelvis in a grad school cadaver lab.

The structure of the hips

The hip sockets, which sit on either side of your pelvis, are shaped like shallow bowls. (“Acetabulum“, the name of the hip sockets, comes from Latin, and means, little bowl for (olive) oil.)

The sockets face downward and outward – more or less – at an angle of 45 degrees. The boney edge, or rim, of each acetabulum serves as a hard stop on your hip’s range of motion. (This is a good and natural thing).

In addition, the shape of your thigh bones (your femurs), and in particular the femoral angle, influence how much hip range of motion you have.

Yes, your range of motion can also be limited by soft tissue, like muscle and fascia, but in yoga asana we address those. We don’t always acknowledge their limits.

Very rarely does one’s hip structure allow for “Squaring” of the hips. When your skeleton does allow the hips to be “squared” in these poses, there is a very real question of whether you should square your hips.

Boney Limitations and Knowledge limitations

Generally, yoga teachers do a poor job of recognizing natural skeletal limitations. Instead of recognizing that our range of motion will be limited by boney stopping points, we say things like:

“Practice and all is coming”

“Keep working on your flexibility, and you’ll get there”

“Just line up your foot to the edge of the mat. Keep trying. You’ll get it.”

When Reverence Goes Wrong

Yoga asana is a physical practice, but it is learned in largely the same way as an oral tradition (with more visuals).

Like an oral tradition, it is passed down person-to-person (or individual to group). Because yoga asana — at least as I have been exposed to it — is embedded with a sense of reverence to teacher and lineage, we yoga practitioners tend to accept answers from yoga teachers at face value.

We ask questions, sure, but we rarely question the answers.

We also rarely seek to test our understanding of yoga against knowledge outside of yoga.

Those teachers we would call gurus, however, were extraordinarily innovative, and changed their minds over the course of their lives. I believe they would readily accept scientific information as it is revealed.

Back to Squaring the Hips

For the second decade of my teaching career, I’ve spoken to hundreds, maybe thousands, of students and teachers about why the hips can’t be squared in Warrior I and Warrior II, and I’ve taught about this boney limit in multiple classes (see my YouTube channel).

Yet many yoga teachers continue to teach with this hyper-geometric language and still say “square your hips”.

Warrior I and II are Spinal Twists

The rotation in Warrior I and Warrior II has to come from somewhere. When your feet are planted with your toes facing one direction but your chest facing another, something somewhere must rotate.

In a healthy, anatomically reasonable Warrior I or Warrior II, the rotation comes from a spinal twist.

In Warrior I, with the right foot forward, on most people the pelvis will face 45 degrees to the left. If you try to square the pelvis, you will rotate at the knee joint of the back leg.

The thigh bone will turn, will rotate relative to the tibia (the shin bone). Forcing this position doesn’t sound healthy, and it’s not.

If you instead focus on simply facing toward the front leg, your spine will rotate, likely from the upper lumbar and thoracic regions. You’ll be able to square your shoulders, but not the pelvis.

Let’s talk Warrior II

Warrior II already requires a fairly extreme range of motion for the back hip (another blog post for another time). Attempting to square the pelvis to the long edge of your yoga mat will transfer intensity from the back leg to the front hip or knee.

Instead, again try allowing your shoulders to square. This brings the rotation into our spines, which can naturally accommodate 45 degrees of rotation over its many segments.

Healthy Hips

Last bit on this topic: I’ve seen too many yoga students-turned patients with hip injuries. If it is not already clear, this cue “square the hips” is harmful. It could lead to femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) as bone hits up against bone, to hip labral tears, ligament injuries in the hips or knees and a cascade of other issues.

Let’s fully recognize that Warrior I and II are spinal twists. Share this post with your yoga teachers, or yoga teacher communities, and spread the word.

To see this blog post in video format, hit play.

We welcome your questions and thoughts in the comment area below.

6 Comments on “Why You Cannot Square Your Hips in Warrior I or Warrior II

Gabrijela
September 27, 2020 at 3:07 am

Dear Ariele,
thank you for sharing your knowledge. You gave me few tips and one question. Regarding tips, your philosophical remark opened my eyes a bit: in the oral tradition there is really a norm not to question what is given. Moreover, when doubt comes, we are ashamed and we supress it as soon as possible (maybe it’s just me, haha). Furthermore, thank you for the anatomical demonstration, great way to explain and teach.
So, my questions.
1. Point of warriors is not to work on your hips, but to work on your spinal twist?
2. I understand and agree with warrior 1, but I have doubts about warrior 2. With pushing the front knee outwards, there is a nice stretch in the front hip and adductors. So I didn’t understand – should we not be doing it?

Thank you 🙂

Gabi

Reply
Dr. Ariele Foster
September 27, 2020 at 2:40 pm

Hi Gabrijela, I’m so glad this statement about oral traditions resonated with you.

To answer question 1: it depends. You can emphasize different physical aspects of different poses. A more shallow warrior pose with core and spinal twist emphasis will have a completely different feel vs. a warrior pose where the emphasis is “depth” and hip stretching. Neither is better or worse — just appropriate for the situation.

As far as #2 – I’m not quite sure what you are referring to. Generally I recommend the front knee stays in line with the third toe, or sometimes I’ll emphasize the pinky toe, so that the student keeps outer hip muscles (horizontal abductors) active. But alignment has many limitations, and we often get caught up in desiring the perfect understanding of alignment we can forget our greater purpose in that moment or not “see” the student’s body in front of us. I’m not against “coloring outside the lines” for a purpose. But I do believe in understanding the “why” behind what we teach. Hopefully that answers your question?

Reply
Patrick Jackman
November 18, 2020 at 9:14 pm

I am wondering how old you are, how long you have practiced yoga, and if you have done any other form of physical discipline like dance or gymnastics? I have not practiced yoga very long, but have danced for almost 30 years. In any case, I have learned that every body is different, and every body can be trained differently. Some people have hips that tend to be more open, some more closed. Regular practice in different forms can alter the body’s limits to a degree, and my body is much more flexible and has more mobility than it did 30 years ago. While your explanation may be true for you, it may not be true for someone else. As I understand, yoga is not a ‘perfect’…it’s a practice, and again will be different for everyone, but still there are ideals to strive for. Your Warrior 1 may never be perfect (as I struggle with it as well) but I believe the practice should still aim for square hips. I have learned a lunge is an acceptable variation when a square hip warrior 1 is not accessible (although not in strict yoga practices). Also, as I understand, Warrior 2 is not a square hip asana, it’s in the open hip category and is a different feel. I identify with your challenges and agree it’s important to understand your own body and it’s limits.

Reply
Dr. Ariele Foster
November 24, 2020 at 6:03 pm

Yes, every body is different. However, humans without hip dysplasia nor acetabular retroversion cannot square their hips. There is literally bone stopping 99.9% of us.If you force beyond that, at a minimum, compensations will take place. Over time, true injury can occur.

I do not teach just to the 0.1%, nor should those individuals necessarily square their hips just because they can.

While my age and yoga experience (both of which are ample) have no impact on this knowledge, my doctorate, decade+ working in physical therapy (physiotherapy) and 3 months spent dissecting in a cadaver lab do inform this blog post.

Perfectionism — including with yoga poses — is poisonous.

Opinions about cues and subtleties between “open” hips and “square” hips, are less important than facts about the human body. People are hurt from a practice that is intended to heal, and we need to get real about that.

Reply
Patrick Jackman
December 12, 2020 at 9:55 am

Thank you for your reply, but I will disagree with your assessment. Warrior 1 is properly done with square hips, which are more than possible, and there is no spinal twist.

Warrior 2 I can see your logic only due to the gaze looking over the front fingertips, meaning there is a slight twist in your neck, but your hips are open anyway, not square, and since all twists are done from square hips, it doesn’t really fall into a twist category for me.

If I were to apply your logic to other skills it doesn’t help your ideas. If I were making a soufflé and it didn’t rise like it should and I know many other people have trouble getting their souffle to rise, I’m not going to claim that a souffle doesn’t rise. I’m going to understand that I have done something incorrectly, because that is the reality. A souffle that doesn’t rise is not a proper souffle.

Anyone practicing yoga should already understand that perfection is NOT what you are striving for. Yoga is not a perfect….its a practice, and should be treated as such. If there is any poison it is certainly not coming from yoga philosophy or a good practice.

Reply
Dr. Ariele Foster
December 14, 2020 at 12:39 am

When you are ready to understand acetabular (hip socket) structure, femoral version, average ranges of motion, collagen types and how hypermobile type collagen can contribute to arthritic changes, I suggest you look into our Online Yoga Anatomy Mentorship (https://yogaanatomyacademy.com/shop) Understanding underlying skeletal structures and physiological variations will help you to better understand this blog post.

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